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机械加工工艺过程

工序

working procedure

一个或一组工人,在一个工作地或一台机床上对一个或同时对几个工件连续完成的那一部分工艺过程称为工序。划分工序的依据是工作地点是否变化和工作过程是否连续。例如,在车床上加工一批轴,既可以对每一根轴连续地进行粗加工和精加工,也可以先对整批轴进行粗加工,然后再依次对它们进行精加工。在第一种情形下,加工只包括一个工序;而在第二种情形下,由于加工过程的连续性中断,虽然加工是在同一台机床上进行的,但却成为两个工序。

One or a group of workers, a process that completes one or more parts simultaneously on a job site or on a machine tool, is called a process. The process is based on whether the work place changes and whether the work process is continuous. For example, machining a batch of axles on a lathe can be processed and refined continuously for each shaft, and the whole batch of shafts can be processed first and then refined in turn. In the first case, the processing includes only one process; in the second case, the processing process is carried out on the same machine, but it is the two process, because the continuity of the process is interrupted.

工序是组成工艺过程的基本单元,也是生产计划的基本单元。

Process is the basic unit of the process and the basic unit of production planning.

安装

install

在机械加工工序中,使工件在机床上或在夹具中占据某一正确位置并被夹紧的过程,称为装夹。有时,工件在机床上需经过多次装夹才能完成一个工序的工作内容。

In mechanical processing, the process of clamping a workpiece on a machine tool or in a fixture is called clamping. Sometimes, the workpiece needs to be repeatedly installed on the machine tool to complete the work content of a process.

安装是指工件经过一次装夹后所完成的那部分工序内容。例如,在车床上加工轴,先从一端加工出部分表面,然后调头再加工另一端,这时的工序内容就包括两个安装。

Installation refers to the part of the process after the workpiece is clamped. For example, machining the shaft on the lathe, first processing part of the surface from one end, then turning to the other end, the process content includes two installation.

工位

Work position

采用转位(或移位)夹具、回转工作台或在多轴机床上加工时,工件在机床上一次装夹后,要经过若干个位置依次进行加工,工件在机床上所占据的每一个位置上所完成的那一部分工序就称为工位。简单来说,工件相对于机床或刀具每占据一个加工位置所完成的那部分工序内容,称为工位。为了减少因多次装夹而带来的装夹误差和时间损失,常采用各种回转工作台、回转夹具或移动夹具,使工件在一次装夹中,先后处于几个不同的位置进行加工。

When using a transposition (or displacement) fixture, a revolving worktable or a multi axis machine tool, the workpiece will be processed in a number of positions after a clip on the machine tool. The part of the workpiece in each position occupied by the machine tool is called a position. In simple terms, the workpiece is called a workstation relative to the part of the machine tool or tool that occupies a machining position. In order to reduce the clamping error and time loss caused by multiple clamping, a variety of rotary worktable, rotary fixture or movable fixture are often used to process the workpiece in a number of different positions.

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